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17周年钜惠
  • 关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首

  • 来源:重庆书之香 日期:2014-05-25
  • (一)定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导

    1、关系代词:who whom, whose, which, that, as

    2关系副词:when where, why

    关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句作用, 同时在从句中又充当句子成分。

    e.g. she is the girl

    who sings best of all.(关系代词who从句中作主语)

    the comrade

    with whom i came knows french.(whom在从句中作介词with的宾语)

    3、关系代词和关系副词的用法:1)当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;2)当先行词为物或整个句子时用which ,可作主语或宾语;3)先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;4)whose用作定语可指人或物;5)关系副词when(指时间,在定语从句中作状语where(指地点在定语从句中作地点状语),why(指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语)。

    (二)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句

    1、限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。

    e.g. i was the only person in our office

    who was invited.(去掉定语从句意思就不完整)

    2非限制性定语从句:从句对先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。

    e.g. tom’s father,

    who is over sixty still works hard day and night.(who引导非限制性定语从句,整个句子可分成两句来翻译)

    (三)使用定语从句时特别注意的几个问题

    1、that与which区别。

    1)用that而不用 which的情况:①先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing …;②先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;③先行词有only very, any等词修饰;④先行词既有人又有物时。

    e.g. there is

    nothing that can prevent him from doing it. 没有什么能阻止他不干那件事。

    the

    first place that they visited in guilin was elephant trunk hill. 桂林他们所参观的第一个地方象鼻山。

    this is the

    best film that i have ever seen. 这部电影我看过的最好的一部。

    mr smith is the

    only foreigner that he knows. 史密斯先生他认识的唯一外国人。

    2)用which而不用 that情况:①引导非限制性定语从句;②代表整个主句意思;③介词 + 关系代词。

    e.g. he had failed in the maths exam,

    which made his father very angry. 他

    考试没有及格,这使他的父亲很生气。

    this is the room

    in which my father lived last year. 这父亲去年居住过房子。

    3)as引导定语从句时的用法

    ①as引导限制性定语从句通常用于the same … as such … as结构中。

    e.g. i want

    the same shirt

    as my friend’s. 我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。

    such machines

    as are used in our workshop are made in china. 我们车间使用这种机器中国制造的。

    ②as引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后用来修饰整个句子。通常用下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know as i expect 等。

    e.g.

    as i expected, he got the first place again in this mid-term examination. 正如我所预料的那样,他在这次期

    试中又获得了第一名。

    3)as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which区别

    ①当主句和从句语义一致时,用as;反之,用which来引导非限制性定语从句。

    e.g. he made a long speech

    as we expected.

    he made a long speech,

    which was unexpected.

    ②当非限制定语从句为否定时,常用which引导。

    e.g. tom drinks a lot every day,

    which his wife doesn’t like at all.

    2. 关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还用复数应由先行词决定。

    e.g. the man who lives downstairs speaks english fluently. 住楼下的那个人

    说得很流利。

    the students who are in grade three are going to climb the hill tomorrow.

    3. 定语从句有时不直接紧靠先行词中间由一个定语、状语或谓语隔开。

    e.g. there is an expression in his eyes that i can’t understand.

    4. 引导定语从句关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which”来代替。

    e.g. october 1 1949 was the day on which ( = when ) the people’s republic of china was founded.

    5. 当定语从句中谓语动词带介词或副词固定短语动词时,短语动词的各个固定部分不要拆开。

    e.g. the sick man whom she is looking after is her father.

    6. 介词关系代词前只能用which和whom,且不能省略;介词句尾关系代词可有which, that, whom 口语中也可用who,且可省略。

    e.g. the man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about has come to school.

    练习定语从句

    一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句:

    1. the fan is on the desk. you want it.

    2. the man is in the next room. he brought our textbooks here yesterday.

    3. the magazine is mine. he has taken it away.

    4. the students will not pass the exam . they don’t study hard.

    5. the woman is our geography teacher. you saw her in the park.

    6. the letter is from my sister. i received it yesterday.

    7. the play was wonderful. we saw it last night.

    8. the train was late. it was going to nanning.

    9. the boy is my brother. he was here a minute ago.

    10. the tree is quite tall. he is climbing it.

    11. here is the girl. her brother works in this shop.

    12. that’s the child. we were looking at his drawing just now.

    13. this is the boy. his sister is a famous singer.

    14. i want to talk to the boys. their homework haven’t been handed in.

    15. is that the woman? her daughter is in my class.

    16. he used to live in a big house. in front of it grew many banana trees.

    17. they passed a factory. at the back of the factory there were rice fields.

    18. the soldier ran to the building. on the top of it flew a flag.

    19. in the evening they arrived at a hill. at the foot of the hill there was a temple.

    20. she came into a big room. in the middle of it stood a large table.

    二根据句子意思,在第一个空白处填入介词,在第二个填入关系代词whom或which:

    1. the person ________________ i spoke just now is the manager that i told you about.

    2. the pencil ________________ he was writing broke.

    3. wu dong, ________________ i went to the concert, enjoyed it very much.

    4. the two things ________________ marx was not sure were the grammar and some of the idioms of english.

    5. her bag, ________________ she put all her books has not been found.

    6. the stories about the long march ________________ this is one example, are well written.

    三选择填空:

    1. the man ____ visited our school yesterday is from london.

    a. who b. which c. whom d. when

    2. the woman ____ is talking to my mother is a friend of hers.

    a. whose b. who c. whom d. which

    3. because of my poor memory all ____ you told me has been forgotten.

    a. that b. which c. what d. as

    4. do you remember those days ____ we spent along the seashore very happily?

    a. when b. where c. which d. who

    5. tom did not take away the camera because it was just the same camera ____ he lost last week.

    a. which b. that c. whom d. as

    6. those ____ want to go please sign their names here.

    a. whom b. which c. who d. when

    7. where is the man ____ i met this morning?

    a. when b. where c. which d. who

    8. who is the woman ____ is sweeping the floor over there?

    a. who b. / c. that d. when

    9. the man ____ you talked just now is a worker.

    a. who b. whom c. to whom d. to who

    10. the man ____ you are going to make friends is my father’s neighbour.

    a. with whom b. when c. to whom d. which

    11. the doctor ____ is leaving for africa next month.

    a. the nurse is talking to him b. whom the nurse is talking

    c. the nurse is talking to d. who the nurse is talking

    12. the man ____ around our school is from america.

    a. which you showed b. you showed him c. you showed d. where you showed

    13. he talked about a hero ____ no one had ever heard.

    a. of whom b. from whom c. about that d. who

    14. in fact the swede did not understand the three questions ____ were asked in french.

    a. where b. who c. in which d. which

    15. have you read the book ____ i lent to you?

    a. that b. whom c. when d. whose

    16. finally, the thief handed over everything ____ he had stolen to the police.

    a. that b. which c. whatever d. all

    17. the foreign guests ____ were government officials were warmly welcomed at the airport.

    a. most of them b. most of that c. most of whom d. most of those

    18. this is the very letter ____came last night.

    a. who b. which c. that d. as

    19. i know only a little about this matter; you may ask ____ knows better than i.

    a. whoever b. whomever c. anyone d. the one

    20. this is the school ____ we visited three days ago.

    a. where b. / c. when d. what

    21. this is the factor

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